Next time you wake from a sound sleep and roll over to see those familiar numbers on the bedside clock, know that many others are doing the same thing.
Whether your time is 3 a.m. or 1 a.m. or any other time, you’re one of many people who experience regular nighttime awakenings.
The time — while it may be surprisingly predictable, down to the minute — really isn’t significant, says psychologist and sleep expert Alexa Kane, PsyD.
“At one point, you may have had a reason to wake up at that time, maybe in response to sleep apnea or a crying baby,” she says. “Your body may have become conditioned to it.”
Regardless, nighttime awakenings are a common phenomenon and usually harmless, especially if you easily doze off again. They do not mean you’re a bad sleeper. And they do not mean you have insomnia.
When are regular awakenings a problem?
Waking up at night, by itself, isn’t a problem. However, waking up and staying awake can be.
“If you wake up and begin to experience worry, anxiety or frustration, you likely have activated your sympathetic nervous system, your ‘fight-or-flight’ system,” says Dr. Kane. “When this happens, your brain switches from sleep mode to wake mode. Your mind may start to race, and your heart rate and blood pressure may go up. That makes it much harder to get back to sleep.”
This stress response can lead to insomnia, a full-blown sleep disorder.
Regularly waking up at night also can be a symptom of sleep apnea. If you have this disorder, you occasionally stop breathing during sleep. Besides waking you up, sleep apnea can disrupt your heart rhythm and reduce the flow of oxygen to your body.
Other symptoms of sleep apnea include:
- Being jolted awake while choking or gasping for air.
- Daytime sleepiness or fatigue.
“If you have these symptoms, see a physician sleep expert,” says Dr. Kane. “Untreated sleep apnea can cause heart disease, diabetes, obesity and other health problems.”
Next time it happens, do this
The next time you wake up at 3 a.m. (or whatever time), give yourself 15 to 20 minutes to doze back into dreamland. It’s OK.
If you’re awake longer than that, it’s best to get out of bed, says Dr. Kane.
“Our brains are highly associative,” she says. “That means if we stay in bed for a long time when not sleeping, our brains can associate the bed with wakeful activities like worrying and planning, instead of sleep. Getting out of bed breaks that association.”
When you get out of bed, do something that promotes sleep:
- Practice deep breathing.
- Read something boring.
- Do not use your cell phone, check email or do anything else that might make your brain think it’s time to wake up and work.
“Relaxation exercises can help you shut off your body’s fight-or-flight response and activate a rest-and-digest response,” says Dr. Kane. “When your body calms down and you feel sleepy again, head back to bed.”
Consistency is key
The best way to put an end to late-night awakenings is to keep a consistent sleep-wake schedule. That means getting up at the same time each day, even on weekends.
Having other good sleep habits is just as important.
“Give yourself 30 to 60 minutes before bed to wind down and prepare your body and mind for sleep,” Dr. Kane says. “Use this time to plan for the next day, writing down your worries, concerns and frustrations so you don’t need to perform those mental gymnastics while in bed at 3 a.m.”
The more you follow these recommendations, the faster you’ll put your nighttime awakenings to bed once and for all, she says.
“We often see chronic insomnia develop in people with ineffective sleep routines — such as waking at 3 a.m. and staying in bed for hours trying to fall back to sleep,” says Dr. Kane. “This behavior leads to the association that bed does not mean sleep and, therefore, reinforces insomnia.”
When to see a sleep expert
When your lack of sleep starts to mess with your work performance, concentration or memory, or is causing you distress, it’s time to see a sleep expert. Your primary care provider can help you find one.